According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the total count of breast reconstruction procedures performed in the U.S. in 2014 was 286,254. Breast reconstruction, clinically called augmentation mammoplasty, which has been the number one cosmetic surgical procedure in the U.S. since 2005, is the surgical placement of implants in a woman’s breasts. It is intended to improve/restore symmetry or increase fullness of the breasts, enlarge naturally small breasts, or restore breast volume, which is greatly affected by pregnancy, weight reduction, breast cancer surgery or mastectomy. Besides these reconstructive or medical reasons, there are also personal ones which make some women decide to undergo the procedure, like the desire to look younger, boost their self-esteem, boost their sex life and, according to some, to make their clothes fit better.

The Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS) website affirms that breast reconstruction is still the most common kind of cosmetic surgery. In 2015, more than 280,000 women and teenagers underwent surgery to have their breasts enlarged with silicone or saline implants and about 106,000 breast cancer patients had reconstruction after mastectomy, often with implants. The popularity of breast augmentation has nearly tripled since 1997, when there were just over 101,000 of these procedures.

Breast implants, which last about 10 years, have an outer layer that is made of firm silicone, while its inside may be filled with silicone gel, saline solution or salt water, or a composite of alternative substances.

In its website, the Bergman and Folkers Cosmetic Surgery says that breast reconstruction is a highly individualized procedure. Though it can be performed for corrective purposes, it cannot correct pendulous or sagging breasts. To restore the youthful firmness and shape of breasts, breast mastopexy or a breast lift will first be required; only after this may breast reconstruction be performed.

Despite some of the risks associated with breast reconstruction procedures (well, any surgical procedure poses some kind of risk), this type of cosmetic surgery is safe, thus, the more than quarter of a million women undergoing it every year.

However, before finally deciding whether one should undergo breast reconstruction and which implant to choose, it is necessary to discuss things first with a trained and certified cosmetic surgeon, especially if one wants it simply because she wants to look better and she has seen how the procedure has really had great results in others.


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The Bystander Effect

The bystander effect is a phenomenon involving an individual’s failure to act due to the presence of other individuals. This psychological concept gained traction following the tragic death of Kitty Genovese

The heinous crime occurred outside Genovese’s New York City apartment in 1964. Her piercing screams alerted several individuals to the lurid event occurring around them. Still, they failed to intervene. It was not apathy or lack of concern that sparked their inaction. Though they may have had their best interest in mind, their inactivity did not stem from self-preservation. Instead, the presence of other individuals is to blame for their negligence. These individuals transferred responsibility to other people, rather than claiming it for themselves. They were under the notion that somebody would call the police or intervene in some way; therefore, the individual himself did not have to act. Since everybody shared that opinion, no action was taken. Moreover, social influences also affected their behaviors. It is human nature to imitate the behaviors of others. From an evolutionary perspective, such mirroring can be vital for survival. In this instance, however, it led to the death of an individual. Unfortunately, the bystander effect continues to occur every single day. Indeed, it extends to other emergencies.

In severe cases, an individual that is hurt in an accident is no longer capable of helping himself or herself. From a humanitarian perspective, it is the social responsibility of an individual to intervene in this emergency whether or not he or she witnessed the accident. Sadly, this is not always the case due to the bystander effect. Luckily, there are several ways to overcome this effect. The most important thing an individual can do is to claim rather than transfer responsibility. The individual can offer his or her assistance rather than assuming others will take action.


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Non revenue water (NRW) is clean, treated drinking water that is delivered to the distribution system but cannot billed to customers because this water never actually reaches them; this water is instead lost. Loss can either be apparent losses, which are due to metering inaccuracies or theft, or real losses or physical losses, which are due to leaks.

According to the American Society of Civil Engineers, the United States losses about seven billion gallons of non-revenue water everyday. The American Water Works Association, however, estimates lost water to be closer to two trillion gallons daily. Only through leak detection can the water distribution system be made to comply with water conservation mandates.

In the U.S., where water supply systems are provided by municipalities to urban communities or cities, these municipalities become directly responsible for the safety, health and welfare of residents and may be held liable if residents suffer damages and losses due to acts of negligence.

Three very important municipal service are to ensure the continuous flow of clear drinking water, locate and repair leaks where these exist. Even what starts as a small puncture in a main pipe line can easily become a huge break that would spill thousands of gallons of water which could damage private commercial properties, furniture and other equipment in ground floors of buildings, sidewalks, and vehicles in parking lots and streets. Obviously, leaks that are never repaired immediately can result in very costly damages.

Due to the aging pipelines and water supplies in so many municipalities, it cannot be denied that leaks have become more costly and frequent. To help municipalities solve emergency leak problems, especially if water has gushed out continuously and has surfaced, are private firms which provide fast and effective municipal leak detection service through the use of state-of-the-art equipment capable of electronically locating leaks.

Besides helping solve emergency problems, these firms also help municipalities save cost on labor, time, materials and equipment.


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Automobile accidents are one of the leading causes of spinal fractures, and account for more than 40% of spinal injuries every year. Any sort of injury to the neck or spine can be highly debilitating and stressful, and according to William Kherkher, these injuries can cause extensive medical bills and other expenses, lost wages from work, long-term disability, and major lifestyle and family-life changes. Understanding the different types of these sorts of injuries is an important step to take if you’ve been in a car accident and are experiencing symptoms in your neck or spine.

A spinal fracture is essentially what happens when vertebra in the spine cause bone fragments to pinch, damaging the spinal nerves or cord. The extent of the injury can vary from mild ligaments and strains to debilitating spinal cord damage. Some of the most common neck and spine injuries after a car incident are:

  • Whiplash: Hyperextension of the neck or rapid back and forth motion of the head cause muscles and ligaments in the neck to be pushed beyond their normal range of motion.
  • Spine instability: A result of excessive motion between vertebrae most often from torn ligaments or broken bone. More often than not requires surgery for realignment.
  • Herniated Disk: Occurs when the soft, jelly-like inside of a spinal disk pushes through the more non-permeable exterior it is encased in through a crack in that exterior, irritating nearby nerves. Pain often felt in an arm or leg; sometimes no pain is felt at all and x-rays must be taken.

Any sort of injury to the neck or spine can be highly debilitating and stressful, and according to William Kherkher, These injuries can cause extensive medical bills and other expenses, lost wages from work, long-term disability, and major lifestyle and family-life changes.


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Salmonella infection is considered one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the country. There are many types of salmonella bacteria, and salmonella contamination usually occurs more often during summer than in any other seasons. Although salmonella infection could be less serious for healthy individuals, those in vulnerable groups may develop complications that can be life-threatening.

Infants, children and older adults are more prone to develop severe symptoms. Pregnant women, those with weak immune system, and those who are under immunosuppressant medications may also develop serious complications. Due to its seriousness, it is important that people should be mindful if the food they are consuming is contaminated with potentially possibly deadly salmonella bacteria.

According to the website of the Cazayoux Ewing Law Firm, salmonella infection could be a result of defectively manufactured food products released in the market. A food that has been mishandled during the processing, packaging, and delivery could pose threat of contamination.

Another possible cause of salmonella infection is unsanitary food handling. Lawyers from the Abel Firm say on their website that restaurant owners and staff who are negligent of the salmonella threat could pose risk of contamination to their customers.

Foods prepared at home are also not safe from salmonella contamination. So, to prevent salmonellosis (salmonella disease) in your own kitchen, always remember these safety tips:

  • Meat products should be washed thoroughly. Salmonella bacteria breeds in animal intestine and feces, and a meat that hasn’t been washed carefully might carry the pathogen.
  • Wash vegetables well, especially if they will be eaten raw.
  • Do not let salmonella bacteria hitchhike on your dirty utensils. To avoid cross-contamination, wash knives, chopping boards, and other utensils in between use while cooking.
  • Raw meats and undercooked eggs can be good salmonella carriers. Remember to cook them well before serving.
  • Finally, utensils used for raw food items should NEVER be used for cooked and ready-to-eat foods to avoid contamination.

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